A) An extra code element used to detect errors in received data

**NJ2X Notes**:

A parity bit is used to detect errors in a data transmission. It is a simple technique. With "even parity", the number of bits with the value one is counted and then the parity bit is set such that the sum of all the bits is even. With "odd" parity, the number of bits with the value of one are counted and then a parity bit is set such that the sum of all the bits is odd.

With even parity, the receiver then checks the parity count and confirms it is even. If data is received that is not even, then the receiver recognizes that an error has occurred.

Even Parity Example:

00001111 = 4, parity bit = 0, sum of all bits is even

11001101 = 5, parity bit = 1, sum of all bits is even

11111111 = 8, parity bit = 0, sum of all bits is even

01111111 = 7, parity bit = 1, sum of all bits is even

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